We inspire, create, protect:
our achievements are your success!

We are the copyright society “KazAK”, created by authors to protect and promote the rights of authors, copyright holders and creators. Our mission is to support and inspire authors to create works that shape the cultural and intellectual heritage of the country and the world, ensuring the protection of their rights and worthy recognition of their contribution to the development of society. We guarantee fair compensation for your work and actively promote our mission on the international stage.

In 2022, the Society had over 5,690 local members and represented over 4,000,000 foreign authors

KazAK is the only Member of CISAC in Kazakhstan since 1999.








The advantages of our society. By becoming a member of our KazAK, you receive intellectual property IPI (identification serial number). Each copyright holder will have their own IPI. By signing an agreement with our company, you will ensure the protection of your rights at the international level. They will be protected not only within the Republic of Kazakhstan, but also beyond its borders.

IPI brings several benefits to creators and performers on social media:


Dear members of the RPO “Kazakhstan Authors’ Society”, authors and copyright holders!

Recently, false information about the activities of the RPO “KazAK” has been spreading on social networks.


KazAK has agreements on the representation of interests by societies and performers from more than 70 countries, the total number of authors and performers whose interests are represented by KazAK is more than 2 million, the total number of works is more than 20 million.

When registering as a copyright holder, you will be required to fill out a form with your personal information.

We verify the accuracy of the information you provide.

After passing moderation, a confirmation email will be sent to your email containing your login and password to enter your personal account.


On June 10, 1996, the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Copyright and Related Rights” was adopted in Kazakhstan to regulate copyright and related rights.

Shortly after the adoption of the law, it was created in 1997 by a group of creative intelligentsia, including writers, poets, composers, playwrights, as the Republican Public Association “Kazakhstan Authors Society” (KazAK), whose Charter was registered with the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan on September 4, 1998 .KazAK is the first OCUP in Kazakhstan in the field of protecting and representing the interests of authors.

In December 1999, KazAK’s activities were recognized internationally, and it became an associate member of the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers CISAC, and on September 22, 2005 it became a full member. Founded in 1926, CISAC is a non-governmental, non-profit organization headquartered in France with regional offices in Africa, South America (Chile), Asia-Pacific (China) and Europe (Hungary).CISAC is the world’s leading network of societies of authors. With 225 member societies in 116 countries, CISAC represents more than 5 million creators from all geographical regions and all artistic repertoires; music, audiovisual media, drama, literature and visual arts.CISAC protects the rights and promotes the interests of creators around the world.”

After joining CISAC, relations with developed foreign societies of authors began to develop dynamically. In 2022, the Society had over 5,690 local members and represented over 4,000,000 foreign authors and copyright holders through bilateral representation agreements.

KazAK is the only Member of CISAC in Kazakhstan.

THE SUBJECT OF KAZAK’S ACTIVITY: is the protection of the property rights of domestic authors and performers both in Kazakhstan and abroad, the rights of foreign authors – in the territory of our country.

In its activities, KazAK is guided by the norms of the following legislative and by-laws:
• Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
• Civil Code, in particular section 5 – Intellectual property rights;
• Tax Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
• Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan On Public Associations;
• Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan On Copyright and Related

According to the notification of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated August 18, 2017 No. 37: “To represent the interests of foreign authors, performers and producers of phonograms, it is necessary to conclude an agreement with an organization that manages similar rights abroad.”
ROO “KazAK” has joint cooperation agreements with the American Public Organization for the Protection of Copyright (BMI), the British Copyright Society (PRS for MUSIC), the German Authors’ Society (GEMA), the Italian Society of Authors and Editors (SIAE), the Spanish General Society of Authors and Editors (SGAE), French Society of Musical Authors, Composers and Publishers (SACEM) and others.
No other collective rights management organizations registered and operating on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan have contractual relations with the above companies.


An international non-governmental, non-profit organization of copyright management organizations, it is the world’s leading network of copyright societies. It is also the world’s largest intellectual property organization, uniting 225 societies in 116 countries and representing more than 5 million creators from all geographic regions and all artistic repertoires.

CISAC actively protects the rights and promotes the interests of authors around the world. The organization enables collective management to seamlessly represent authors around the world and ensure that royalties flow to authors for the use of their works anywhere in the world.

Founded in 1926, CISAC is a non-governmental, non-profit organization with headquarters in France and regional offices in Africa, South America (Chile), Asia-Pacific (China) and Europe (Hungary). CISAC is the world’s leading network of copyright societies.

In December 1999, the activities of KazAK were recognized internationally, and it became an associated member of the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers CISAC (CISAC), and on September 22, 2005 – its full member.

After joining CISAC, relations with developed foreign societies of authors began to develop dynamically. By 2022, the Society had over 5,690 local members and represented over 4,000,000 foreign authors and copyright holders through bilateral representation agreements.

KazAK is the only member of CISAC in Kazakhstan.

Resolution: Support for CISAC members in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova and Kazakhstan (ORIGINAL)

“International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organizations.”

It is an independent, non-profit membership association that promotes, on an international basis, the collective management of reproduction and other rights in textual and graphic works.

IFRRO has more than 150 members from more than 85 countries.

IFRRO members represent many millions of authors, artists and publishers of books, magazines, newspapers, journals and sheet music.

IFRRO members act on behalf of authors and publishers where individual exercise of their rights is not possible, providing access to copyrighted works and permitting the reproduction and certain digital uses of those works.

Copyright industries account for about 4-6% of gross domestic product (GDP) in developed countries. They are often the fastest growing sector of the economy and one of the most important contributors to new job creation and should be encouraged and nurtured.

The decision to accept the KazAK ROO as a member of the IFRRO was made at the General Assembly in Reykjavik (Iceland) on October 8, 2023. The official letter regarding this event was received on October 23, 2023.

The Global Alliance of Authors and Performers Organizations is an independent, non-profit organization created to protect and defend the common interests of creators around the world.

Founded by seven countries: Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

GAAPO continues to consolidate and coordinate the work of member organizations to strengthen the protection of copyright and related rights and interests of copyright holders around the world at the national and international levels.

ROO “KazAK” became a full member of GAAPO “Global Alliance of Organizations of Authors and Performers” from September 9, 2023.

President of GAAPO Oleg Gutyum General Director of the Moldavian Authors’ Society “Copyright”

The Chairman of the Board of GAAPO is the General Director of the RPO “KazAK” Yesendikova Ainura.

General Secretary – Giga Kobaladze Chairman of the Georgian Authors Society “GCA”

BMI (Broadcast Music, Inc.) is an American copyright management society founded in 1939.

BMI collects royalties from radio broadcasts, television, concerts, streaming music and other music uses. It licenses the use of its members’ music and ensures that they are fairly compensated for the use of their work.

BMI is one of the largest music rights holders in the United States and abroad. Its members include both famous performers and aspiring authors, text writers and composers. The society provides a wide range of services to its members, including monitoring the use of their music, collecting royalties and distributing funds.

BMI also provides educational events, seminars and training to its members to help them develop their careers and protect their rights. It actively participates in the process of developing standards and legislation in the field of copyright and music ownership.

BMI has an international presence through its partnerships and agreements with similar organizations around the world. The Society regularly updates its rights management systems and technology to more efficiently collect and distribute royalties to its members.

BMI also plays an important role in encouraging new talent and supporting young musicians through various programs and scholarships. It provides advice to its members on copyright issues, licensing and protecting their interests in the music industry.

BMI supports a variety of genres and styles of music, from popular and rock to classical and jazz. The society is active in combating copyright violations and illegal use of music.

BMI ensures transparency in its activities by providing its members with access to information about the collection and distribution of funds. It also works with government and non-government organizations to improve legislation and protect musicians’ copyrights.

BMI has a wide range of partners in the music industry, including publishers, producers, concert agencies and other rights holders. The Society is constantly expanding its activities, adapting to changing conditions in the music industry and the digital environment.

BMI supports its members in licensing and protecting their music content across a variety of platforms and services. It also provides advice on the legal status of works and protection against piracy.

BMI is actively involved in cultural life, supporting music events, festivals and competitions. The Society encourages cultural diversity and creative development through its programs and initiatives.

BMI sets standards for music royalties and collaborates with other rights holders and interests in the music industry to achieve fairness and sustainability in the industry.

ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers) is a non-profit society founded in 1914 in the United States to protect the copyrights of musicians. It licenses the use of its members’ music across a variety of media, including radio, television, film and online platforms.

ASCAP consists of more than 800,000 members, including composers, lyricists and music publishers. The Society enforces copyright protection by charging fees for the use of music and distributing these funds to its members. Its main goal is to protect the creative interests of musicians and provide them with fair compensation for the use of their works.

ASCAP also provides its members with educational resources and opportunities to advance their careers in the music industry. The Society sets standards for rates for the use of music, regulates licensing agreements and relationships with other copyright management organizations.

ASCAP is active internationally, establishing partnerships with similar organizations around the world to protect the rights of its members abroad. The Society monitors the use of music in various fields to ensure that copyright is respected and artists are fairly remunerated.

ASCAP also engages in public debate and the legislative process to protect the interests of its members and improve copyright law. The Society is a key player in the music rights industry and has a significant influence on shaping the legal and economic environment for musicians and rights holders.

WIPO Connect is an IT solution developed and offered by WIPO, the World Intellectual Property Organization (Switzerland), designed to facilitate the collective management of copyright and related rights, including local and central modules.

Collective rights management organizations (CRMOs) manage copyright and related rights on behalf of rights holders.

A key challenge for users is to properly manage the vast amounts of data and information they collect about their members, their works and other creative contributions.

Thus, documentation is vital for the smooth functioning of PCOs at the national, regional and international level. OCUPs need to collect information about copyright holders and works, such as identifiers, names and aliases, titles, shares, sub-publications and licensing agreements. This information allows OCUPs to collect royalties and distribute them to copyright holders.

WIPO Connect is an efficient, highly suitable and customizable solution designed to facilitate the day-to-day operations of PCOs and their collaboration with PCOs from other countries.

In August 2023, in accordance with Article 76 of the Agreement on Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the European Union (“to improve the management of PCOs by introducing measures “to achieve a higher level of rationalization and transparency in relation to the implementation of the tasks of their PCOs”) RPO “KazAK” » acquired the specialized program WIPO Connect from WIPO – the World Intellectual Property Organization.

WIPO Connect is a program that will be useful to Kazakhstani copyright holders and users. It will strengthen the relationship between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the European Union, adding transparency and technological advances to the work of RPO KazAK, as an international level OCUP.

Issuance of permits

The issuance of copyright permissions by our copyright society is an important mechanism for protecting and managing intellectual property. This process includes evaluating the rights and responsibilities of the author or copyright holder, determining the terms of use of the work, and collecting and distributing funds received from licensing or other forms of use. This ensures fair compensation for creative work and protects the interests of authors and copyright holders.

Collection of royalties

Collection of royalties to our copyright holders is carried out by our copyright society in accordance with the contract and legislation.

This process includes the accounting and distribution of funds received from the use of works, taking into account specific agreements and rules established by the society.

Such a system ensures fair compensation for the use of creative works and supports the creative activities of copyright holders, contributing to the development of the cultural and intellectual potential of society.

Assistance in transfer of rights

Assistance in transferring rights to our copyright holders is provided by our copyright society through licensing procedures and concluding agreements on the use of works.

This includes assistance in preparing and processing the necessary documents, as well as consultations on issues of legal regulation of intellectual property.

In addition, our society is actively searching for new opportunities to maximize the potential income of copyright holders from the use of their works. These activities facilitate the effective transfer and use of rights and ensure that the interests of our rights holders are protected to the highest possible level.

Management of rights on a collective basis

The Copyright Society collectively manages the rights of our copyright holders through licensing and intellectual property management mechanisms. This allows you to protect their interests, enforce copyrights and control the use of their works.

In addition, we collect and distribute royalties from the use of works, represent the interests of copyright holders in negotiations and agreements with third parties, and also fight copyright violations. This collective management system helps us effectively protect and maximize intellectual property revenue for our rights holders.

Distribution and payment of remuneration

The distribution and payment of remuneration to our copyright holders is carried out by the copyright society in compliance with transparent and fair procedures. This process includes accounting for income from the use of works, as well as determining the share of copyright holders in the funds received.

After the necessary calculations and checks, the copyright society pays remuneration to copyright holders in accordance with their contractual obligations and legislation. Such a system ensures fair distribution of income from the use of works and stimulates further creativity and intellectual activity.


KazAK protects the rights of copyright holders at the request of the copyright holders themselves, and on its own initiative, including by filing claims for damages for copyright infringement.

The main subject of KazAK’s activities also includes the protection of property rights of domestic authors both in Kazakhstan and abroad, as well as the protection of the rights of foreign copyright holders in the territory of our country. These activities, within the framework of the law, contribute to ensuring the rule of law and protecting the interests of rights holders both at the national and international levels.


According to the nature of its activity, KazJSC is an organization that manages the property rights of authors on a collective basis, and according to its organizational and legal form, it is a republican public association. The society works on the principles of voluntary and equal membership.


The main activity of Kazak JSC is the management of authors’ property rights – issuing permissions for the use of their works on behalf of authors, collecting, distributing and paying royalties. The rights of authors (their legal heirs) are managed on a collective basis in cases where it is difficult to implement them on an individual basis (public performance, including on radio and television, reproduction of works by mechanical and magnetic recording, etc.). when transferring the rights to use literary and artistic works of authors (their legal heirs) on an individual basis.


Also, KazAK, both at the request of the authors and on its own initiative, is engaged in protecting the rights of authors by filing claims for compensation for copyright infringement. The subject of KazAK’s activities is also the protection of the property rights of domestic authors both in Kazakhstan and abroad, and the rights of foreign authors in the territory of our country. KazAK is a member of the international organization CISAK, it unites 225 societies from 216 countries.


Copyright protection

IPI allows authors to protect their works from unauthorized use or copying on social networks.

Distribution control

Authors can control how and where their work is shared on social media, maintaining control over its use.


IPI opens up opportunities for monetizing content on social networks through affiliate programs, advertising, or selling licenses to use works.

Recognition and authorship

IPI recognizes authorship and establishes rights to a work, which is important for authors and performers who want to be recognized for their creative achievements.

Distribution and popularization

IPI helps distribute and popularize works on social networks, which contributes to their widespread recognition and success among audiences.

Announcement of false information about the activities of the RPO "KazAK"​

This information, which is currently being established by some individuals, is untrue and may harm the reputation and work of the Company.

They use unverified data in order to have a negative impact on the work of the oldest OKUP in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

We ask you not to respond to such information.Persons involved in the creation and dissemination of such false information are reminded that their activities may fall under Article 274 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan: “Dissemination of knowingly false information that creates a threat of causing significant harm to the rights and legitimate interests of citizens, organizations or legally protected interests of society or the state.”

This may result in appropriate legal consequences and penalties.

© 1998 – 2024 ROO KazAK Kazakhstan Authors Society
All rights reserved

Международная неправительственная некоммерческая организация, объединяющая организации по управлению авторскими правами, является ведущей в мире сетью авторских обществ. Она также является крупнейшей в мире организацией по защите интеллектуальной собственности, объединяющей 225 обществ в 116 странах и представляющей более 5 миллионов творцов из всех географических регионов и всех художественных репертуаров.

CISAC активно защищает права и продвигает интересы авторов по всему миру. Организация дает возможность коллективному управлению беспрепятственно представлять авторов по всему миру и гарантировать, что гонорары поступят авторам за использование их произведений в любой точке мира.

Основанная в 1926 году, CISAC является неправительственной некоммерческой организацией с штаб-квартирой во Франции и региональными офисами в Африке, Южной Америке (Чили), Азиатско-Тихоокеанском регионе (Китай) и Европе (Венгрия). CISAC является ведущей в мире сетью авторских обществ.

В декабре 1999 года деятельность КазАК была признана на международном уровне, и оно стало ассоциированным членом Международной конфедерации обществ авторов и композиторов CISAC (СИЗАК), а 22 сентября 2005 года – его полноправным членом.

После вступления в CISAC начали динамично развиваться отношения с развитыми зарубежными авторскими обществами. К 2022 году Общество насчитывало более 5 690 местных членов и представляло более 4 000 000 иностранных авторов и правообладателей на основе двусторонних соглашений о представительстве.

КазАК является единственным членом CISAC в Казахстане.

Резолюция: Поддержка членов CISAC в Азербайджане, Армении, Грузии, Молдове и Казахстане (ОРИГИНАЛ)

«Международная федерация организаций по правам на воспроизведение».

Это независимая некоммерческая членская ассоциация, которая содействует на международной основе коллективному управлению воспроизведением и другими правами на текстовые и графические произведения.

В состав IFRRO входят более 150 членов из более чем 85 стран мира.

Члены IFRRO представляют многие миллионы авторов, художников и издателей книг, журналов, газет, журналов и нотных изданий.

Члены IFRRO действуют от имени авторов и издателей в тех случаях, когда индивидуальное осуществление их прав невозможно, предоставляя доступ к произведениям, защищенным авторским правом, и разрешая воспроизведение и определенные виды цифрового использования этих произведений.

Отрасли авторского права составляют около 4-6% валового внутреннего продукта (ВВП) в развитых странах. Зачастую они являются самым быстрорастущим сектором экономики и одними из наиболее важных факторов, способствующих созданию новых рабочих мест, и их следует поощрять и лелеять.

Решение о принятии РОО «КазАК» в членство IFRRO было принято на Генеральной Ассамблее в Рейкьявике (Исландия) 8 октября 2023 года. Официальное письмо об этом событии было получено 23 октября 2023 г.

«Глобальный альянс организаций авторов и исполнителей» – это независимая некоммерческая организация, созданная для защиты и защиты общих интересов творцов во всем мире.

Основан семью странами: Молдовой, Украиной, Грузией, Арменией, Азербайджаном, Казахстаном и Узбекистаном.

GAAPO продолжает консолидировать и координировать работу организаций-членов для усиления защиты авторских прав и смежных прав и интересов правообладателей во всем мире на национальном и международном уровнях.

РОО «КазАК» стал полноправным членом GAAPO «Глобальный альянс организаций авторов и исполнителей» с 9 сентября 2023 г.

Президент GAAPO Олег Гутюм Генеральный директор Молдавского Авторского Общества «Copyright»

Председателем правления GAAPO является Генеральным директором РОО «КазАК» Есендикова Айнура.

Генеральный Секретарь- Гига Кобаладзе Председатель Грузинского авторского общества «GCA»

BMI (Broadcast Music, Inc.) – это американское общество по управлению авторскими правами, основанное в 1939 году.

BMI занимается сбором авторских отчислений от радиовещания, телевидения, концертов, потоковой музыки и других музыкальных использований. Оно предоставляет лицензии на использование музыки своих членов и обеспечивает им справедливое вознаграждение за использование их творчества.

BMI является одним из крупнейших музыкальных правообладателей в США и за его пределами. В его члены входят как знаменитые исполнители, так и начинающие авторы, текстописатели и композиторы. Общество предоставляет своим членам широкий спектр услуг, включая мониторинг использования их музыки, сбор отчислений и распределение средств.

BMI также проводит образовательные мероприятия, семинары и тренинги для своих членов, помогая им развивать свои карьеры и защищать свои права. Оно активно участвует в процессе формирования стандартов и законодательства в области авторских прав и правообладания музыкой.

BMI имеет международное присутствие благодаря своим партнерствам и соглашениям с аналогичными организациями в разных странах мира. Общество регулярно обновляет свои системы управления правами и технологии для более эффективного сбора и распределения отчислений своим членам.

BMI также играет важную роль в поощрении новых талантов и поддержке молодых музыкантов через различные программы и стипендии. Оно оказывает консультационную поддержку своим членам по вопросам авторских прав, лицензирования и защиты своих интересов в индустрии музыки.

BMI поддерживает разнообразие жанров и стилей музыки, от популярной и рок-музыки до классической и джазовой. Общество ведет активную деятельность по борьбе с нарушениями авторских прав и незаконным использованием музыки.

BMI обеспечивает прозрачность в своей деятельности, предоставляя своим членам доступ к информации о сборе и распределении средств. Оно также сотрудничает с правительственными и неправительственными организациями для улучшения законодательства и защиты авторских прав музыкантов.

BMI имеет широкий круг партнеров в музыкальной индустрии, включая издателей, продюсеров, концертные агентства и другие правообладатели. Общество постоянно расширяет свою деятельность, адаптируясь к изменяющимся условиям в музыкальной индустрии и цифровой среде.

BMI оказывает поддержку своим членам в процессе лицензирования и защиты их музыкального контента на различных платформах и сервисах. Оно также предоставляет консультационную помощь по вопросам юридического статуса произведений и защиты от пиратства.

BMI активно участвует в культурной жизни, поддерживая музыкальные мероприятия, фестивали и конкурсы. Общество поощряет культурное разнообразие и творческое развитие через свои программы и инициативы.

BMI устанавливает стандарты для тарифов на использование музыки, сотрудничает с другими правообладателями и интересами в музыкальной индустрии для достижения справедливости и устойчивости в отрасли.

ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers) – это некоммерческое общество, основанное в 1914 году в США для защиты авторских прав музыкантов. Оно предоставляет лицензии на использование музыки своих членов в различных медиа, включая радио, телевидение, кино и онлайн-платформы.

ASCAP состоит из более чем 800 000 членов, включая композиторов, текстописателей и музыкальных издателей. Общество обеспечивает защиту авторских прав путем взимания платы за использование музыки и распределения этих средств своим членам. Его главная цель – защита творческих интересов музыкантов и обеспечение им справедливого вознаграждения за использование их произведений.

ASCAP также предоставляет своим членам образовательные ресурсы и возможности для продвижения их карьер в музыкальной индустрии. Общество устанавливает стандарты для тарифов на использование музыки, регулирует лицензионные соглашения и взаимоотношения с другими организациями по управлению авторскими правами.

ASCAP активно работает на международном уровне, устанавливая партнерства с аналогичными организациями по всему миру для защиты прав своих членов за границей. Общество осуществляет мониторинг использования музыки в различных сферах, чтобы гарантировать соблюдение авторских прав и справедливое вознаграждение творческих личностей.

ASCAP также участвует в общественных дебатах и законодательном процессе для защиты интересов своих членов и улучшения законодательства об авторских правах. Общество является ключевым игроком в индустрии музыкальных прав и оказывает значительное влияние на формирование правовой и экономической среды для музыкантов и правообладателей.

WIPO Connect — это ИТ-решение, разработанное и предлагаемое WIPO, Всемирной Организацией Интеллектуальной Собственности (Швейцария), предназначенное для облегчения коллективного управления авторскими и смежными правами, включая локальный и центральный модули.

Организации коллективного управления правами (ОКУПы) управляют авторскими и смежными правами от имени правообладателей.

Ключевой проблемой для пользователей является правильное управление огромными объемами данных и информации, которые они собирают о своих членах, их работах и ​​другом творческом вкладе.

Таким образом, документация жизненно важна для бесперебойного функционирования ОКУПов на национальном, региональном и международном уровне. ОКУПам необходимо собирать информацию о правообладателях и произведениях, такую ​​как идентификаторы, имена и псевдонимы, названия, доли, субпубликации и лицензионные соглашения. Эта информация позволяет ОКУПам собирать гонорары и распределять их правообладателям.

WIPO Connect представляет собой эффективное, хорошо подходящее и настраиваемое решение, призванное облегчить повседневную деятельность ОКУПов и их сотрудничество с ОКУПами из других стран.

В августе 2023 г. с соответствии со статьей 76 Соглашения о расширенном партнерстве и сотрудничестве между Республикой Казахстан и Европейским Союзом («усовершенствовать управление ОКУП путем внедрения мер «для достижения более высокого уровня рационализации и прозрачности в отношении выполнения задач своих ОКУП») РОО «КазАК» приобрел специализированную программу WIPO Connect от WIPO — Всемирной организации интеллектуальной собственности.

WIPO Connect это программа, которая будет полезна казахстанским правообладателям и пользователям. Она позволит укрепить отношения между Республикой Казахстан и Европейским Союзом, добавив прозрачность и технологические достижения в работу РОО «КазАК», как ОКУПа международного уровня.